Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosis – Zeroing In On The Condition

Diabetes insipidus is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to retain water in the body. This condition affects adults as well as children. Diabetes insipidus diagnosis is based on the observation of the clinical diabetes insipidus symptoms and the results of laboratory tests.

diabetes inspidus diagnosis

Frequent and excessive thirst is noted as an important symptom in diabetes insipidus diagnosis.

Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosis – The Types Of The Condition

Diabetes insipidus diagnosis may reveal either a case of central diabetes insipidus or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, based on the activity of ADH. ADH or Anti Dieuretic Hormone, also known as vassopressin, controls the amount of water conserved by the body.

Central diabetes insipidus can be the result of a deficiency of ADH, while nephrogenic diabetes insipidus usually results when the kidneys do not function properly in response to ADH. Sometimes it may also be a result of the use of drugs like Lithium and Amphotericin B.

Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosis – The Symptoms Experienced

Here is a list of symptoms a person with diabetes insipidus may experience.

  • Polyuria

    The person may pass excess urine, which is often colorless. The amount of urine passed can range from 3 liters in mild cases to up to 20 liters in severe cases. The frequency of urination is as high as 15-20 minutes.

  • Polydipsia

    He may feel excessively thirsty and dehydrated despite drinking lots of water frequently.

  • Disturbed Sleep Pattern

    The person may have trouble sleeping, as he frequently feels the urge to urinate. This results in a disturbed sleep pattern and drowsiness during daytime.

  • Fatigue

    Due to the disturbed sleep pattern, he may feel tired all the time and also experience difficulty in carrying out routine activities. This can also lead to irritability and a loss of concentration.

  • Malaise

    A person with diabetes insipidus can end up feeling vaguely unwell most of the time for no apparent reason.

Diabetes Insipdus Diagnosis – Additional Symptoms In Children

It is quite challenging to identify the symptoms of diabetes insipidus in children, as most of them cannot express their symptoms. Diabetes insipidus diagnosis becomes twice as difficult in children who have not learnt to speak. In such cases, parents can make the diagnosis easier by looking for the following symptoms in their child.

  • The child continues to cry persistently, even after he has been fed, and without the presence of any previously diagnosed medical problems
  • The sleep pattern of the child is disturbed and the child appears frequently irritable
  • The child is not gaining weight with age as expected and instead has weight loss
  • He frequently contracts infections and fever
  • The child wets the bed despite being at a sufficiently advanced age
  • He gets tired easily and frequently

Laboratory Tests Involved In Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosis

  • The estimation of urinary electrolytes such as sodium, chloride, and calcium
  • The measurement of serum osmolality
  • The observation of specific gravity on the first morning void of urine (low in cases of diabetes insipidus)
  • 24 hour urine collection (urine volume is higher than normal in cases of diabetes mellitus)
  • The measurement of urinary and blood glucose to differentiate diabetes insipidus from diabetes mellitus
  • The testing of the serum creatinine to evaluate the possibility of other kidney diseases
diagnosis of diabetes insipidus

An observation of a constant sense of fatigue and malaise can help in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus.

Children with diabetes insipidus may suffer from continued weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhea if the condition is left untreated. If an adult with the condition has not been treated, he can still remain healthy as long as he compensates for the persistent loss of water from the body. But he always carries the risk of dehydration. A loss of potassium can also occur in such cases. It is best to seek timely diabetes insipidus diagnosis and subsequent treatment for the condition to ensure optimal health.

The Causes Of Gestational Diabetes – Some Details on the Triggers

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a condition characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels during pregnancy. While the causes of gestational diabetes can affect any pregnant woman, there are some factors that make certain women highly susceptible to the condition. Some of these triggering factors include:

  • Obesity
  • A family history of diabetes mellitus
  • Previous delivery of a baby with birth weight more than 4 kilograms
  • The presence of glucose in the urine (glycosuria)
causes of gestational diabetes

High risk factors like obesity are some of the causes of gestational diabetes.

The Common Causes Of Gestational Diabetes

GDM can be caused by the dysfunctioning of the beta cells (cells that secrete insulin) of the pancreas. Some of the other causes of gestational diabetes include:

  • Autoimmune Causes

    A study conducted in women with gestational diabetes mellitus revealed the presence of self-destructing (autoimmune) antibodies. These are directed against the pancreatic islets and are called anti-islet antibodies. Due to the presence of these antibodies, the insulin secretion is inadequate and fails to match the increased insulin demand that is seen during pregnancy. This leads to gestational diabetes mellitus.

  • Monogenic Causes

    The autosomes and mitochondrial DNA present in the body regulate insulin secretion. Some of the important genes involved in this process are glucokinase, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, and the insulin promoter factor 1. Detailed metabolic studies have revealed abnormalities in glucose-mediated insulin secretion due to mutations in these genes. Such abnormalities can lead to a decrease in insulin secretion and in turn lead to gestational diabetes mellitus.

  • Insulin Resistance

    This is a major factor that triggers gestational diabetes mellitus, as the body’s sensitivity to insulin decline with the progress of the pregnancy.

    Studies have revealed increased circulating levels of leptin and the inflammatory markers TNF-α and C-reactive protein, and decreased levels of adiponectin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Increased content of fat in the liver and muscle has also been reported in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Women with GDM show variation in genetic coding for:

    • Glucokinase, which is important for the response produced by the beta cells in the presence of glucose
    • Calpain-10, which is commonly associated with non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, especially in Hispanic Americans and some other ethnic groups
    • The sulfonylurea receptor 1, which regulates insulin secretion in response to glucose
    • The β3 adrenoreceptor, which is said to be involved in fat regulation in the body
gestational diabetes causes

As gestational diabetes causes are varied, all women are advised to undergo screening for GDM.

If GDM is left untreated, it can cause various complications both during and after the pregnancy. As the causes of gestational diabetes are varied, it is advisable for every pregnant woman to undergo screening for GDM.

The Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs – Is Your Canine Affected?

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that results due to insulin deficiency, and like humans, even dogs may be affected by this condition. Reports say that there is a three-fold increase in number of dogs diagnosed to be diabetic in last thirty years. By keeping an eye out on the clinical symptoms of diabetes in dogs, you can ensure that your four-legged friend is always healthy.

It should be noted that the symptoms of diabetes in dogs are almost the same as those in humans.

The Breeds That Are Affected

Diabetes generally affects all breeds of dogs, but certain breeds like German Shepherds, Poodles, Miniature Schnauzers, and Golden Retrievers are affected at a comparatively higher rate. In most cases, the main cause behind the condition is the immunological destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Genetic predisposition is also an important factor when it comes to the symptoms of diabetes in dogs.

symptoms of diabetes in dogs

The symptoms of diabetes in dogs are more commonly noticed in specific breeds like German Shepherds

How To Know If Your Dog Is Diabetic

Diabetes commonly affects middle-aged and elderly dogs. Over 70 percent of the affected dogs are above seven years of age, at the time of diagnosis. Diabetes seldom occurs in younger ones.

A typical diabetic dog would be middle-aged, overweight, and of the female gender. The female to male diabetes ratio in dogs is around 3:1.

The Main Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs

Symptoms appear gradually (over weeks) by 6-9 years of age in affected dogs.

Diabetes causes hyperglycemia, which is marked by high blood glucose levels – a characteristic feature of diabetes. Hyperglycemia further leads to the appearance of following symptoms.

  • Polydypsia – Increased thirst and water consumption
  • Polyphagia – Increased hunger, marked by a frequent urge to eat
  • Polyuria – Increased frequency of passing urine

Other symptoms of diabetes in dogs include:

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Cataract, amrked by cloudy eyes that cause diminution of vision

The Advanced Symptoms Of Diabetes In Dogs

As the condition progresses, the symptoms of diabetes in dogs also turn complex and serious in nature. Multiple organs in the body are affected during the advanced stages of diabetes, and here are some of the commonly observed complications:

  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis

This is a serious complication of diabetes, so if you have any reason to suspect that your dog has ketoacidosis, find a veterinarian immediately.

Inadequate sugar utilization necessitates the formation of ketone bodies, which act as alternative sources of energy. These ketone bodies are the by-product of metabolic reactions in the body, and excess levels of such ketones in the blood can be detected in the laboratory to ketoacidosis.

It manifests clinically as an odor in the breath, and typically smells like a nail polish removing solution.

  • Infections

Diabetic dogs are especially prone to urinary tract infections, and mouth and gum infections. High levels of blood sugar facilitate the growth of infectious germs, and obvious symptoms like lethargy and vomiting generally point to infection.

  • Kidney Damage

This condition is known as diabetic nephropathy. Long term blood sugar fluctuations can cause damage to the kidneys, bringing about renal failure with time.

  • Cataract

The lens of eye is a transparent structure, but diabetes makes it susceptible to cataract (and the lens becomes opaque). This makes the eyes look cloudy and leads to the gradual loss of vision. This is one of the most easily identifiable symptoms of diabetes in dogs.

Once you note such symptoms, doctors will be able to confirm the presence of diabetes through various tests and laboratory findings. They will mainly look for:

  • Elevated blood cholesterol lipids
  • Protein in the urine, indicating kidney damage
  • Increased liver enzymes and/or enlarged liver
  • Elevated white blood cell count due to bacterial infections

Keeping an eye out for the symptoms of diabetes in dogs can help you save your dog and seek immediate consultation from veterinarians when there is a problem. Statistics reveal that only 50% of diabetic dogs survive for at least 2 months after diagnosis, with continued successful treatment at home. Dogs that are being treated for diabetes have the same life expectancy as non-diabetic dogs, so help your canine friend counter the condition.

The Complete Canine Diabetes Diet – What To Feed Your Dog

While planning a canine diabetes diet, you should first understand the basic metabolic interaction of carbohydrates. The right diabetes diet for dogs will mainly involve regulated amounts of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, along with some fiber content.

Things To Know About Framing A Canine Diabetes Diet

The dosage of insulin to be taken and the frequency of the dosage largely depend on the body’s carbohydrate tolerance. Blood glucose levels typically rise after meals, and for this reason, the need for insulin is increased.

canine diabetes diet

A canine diabetes diet needs to have the right amount of all nutrients

Diabetic dogs usually have low levels of insulin in their body, and for this reason, carbohydrates have to be supplemented cautiously in their diet as they contribute towards excessive blood sugar. Different dogs respond in different manners to dietary modifications, so there is no ‘specific diet’ for diabetic dogs. You can however vary the dietary components while framing a canine diabetes diet.

How To Plan A Canine Diabetes Diet – The Many Components

Carbohydrates

The energy required for day-to-day activities is mostly derived from carbohydrates. The doses of insulin that you provide to your dog and the amount of carbohydrates to be supplemented largely depend on each other. If you keep the dietary carbohydrates steady, insulin needs can also be maintained steadily.

  • Simple carbohydrates (like propylene glycol, sugars) are easily broken down by the body, causing a steep rise in blood sugar. These should be avoided.
  • Complex carbohydrates are slowly digested and so, the blood sugar levels do not rise abruptly. These can be included in small quantities.

The Right Glycemic Index

The glycemic index is a measure of the effects of dietary carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. It measures the rise in blood sugar per gram of carbohydrate in food, with respect to its rise due to glucose. It is ideal to add foods that have a low glycemic index in the canine diabetes diet.

  • Low Glycemic Index

Foods items that fall under this category release glucose slowly but steadily. Fresh vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes are examples that can be immediately added to any diabetes diet.

  • Medium Glycemic Index

Foods like whole wheat products, honey, sweet potatoes, sucrose, and brown rice fall under the Medium Glycemic Index category. Such foods can be rarely included in a canine diabetes diet.

  • High Glycemic Index

Glucose, white rice, and white bread have a high glycemic index. These foods cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels after their consumption and should be avoided.

Charts that display the glycemic indices of various food products are commercially available, and you can use these while framing a canine diabetes diet.

Proteins

Proteins do not raise blood sugar levels abruptly, so you can increase the protein content in order to cut down on the carbohydrates. Foods that are based on cereals and pulses are rich in protein, and fishes, meat are protein-rich foods too.

Fatty Foods

Like most diabetic dogs, if your dog is overweight, food items that contain fat should be restricted. Obesity is the main culprit in canine diabetes, as fat accumulates and increases the body weight, posing risk to your canine.

Omega fatty acids should help in this regard as they are good for the body. Fish oil and liver oil are rich in omega fatty acids.

For weight reduction in dogs, additional L-carnitine supplements can be included. L-carnitine is an amino acid that improves the breakdown of fats and helps maintain the body mass. Beef is a good choice in this regard. L-carnitine also helps prevent muscle wasting during weight loss.

Fibrous Foods

Fibrous foods are extremely essential for the body, and there are two types of fibers involved. These are:

  • Viscous Fibers

These are soluble fibers that are responsible for the formation of gases in the intestines. The bacteria present in the colon ferment and produce gases, and excess gas can speed up the absorption of glucose. High soluble fiber supplements can cause diarrhea and abdominal discomfort in your dog, so soluble fibers should be avoided.

Soluble fibers mainly include pectins, psyllium, guargum, and lactulose.

  • Insoluble Fibers

These are inert and have water retention properties, and they do not form gases. They swell up by absorbing water, so you should provide adequate water to your dog to prevent the risk of constipation. The side effects of insoluble fibers include vomiting, voluminous stools, flatulence, and retarded absorption of other nutrients.

The Need For Snacks In A Canine Diabetes Diet

As insulin dosages and carbohydrates are closely dependent, it is important to provide your dog extra treats between meals. They help prevent sudden spells of hypoglycemia (sudden fall in the blood sugar level). Examples of such snacks include dehydrated meat pieces, dried salmon, freeze-dried liver, and dried beef tendons.

It is important to find the best food items that best suit your dog in order to plan the right canine diabetes diet. The contents of commercially available diabetic dog foods usually have rich protein, high fiber, and complex carbohydrates.

Diabetes Insipidus Treatment Measures – Hormones That Help

Diabetes insipidus is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to retain water in the body. Before you check out the various diabetes insipidus treatment options, it is essential to understand the condition first.

diabetes insipidus treatment

Keeping your body hydrated with plenty of fluids is highly recommended for diabetes insipidus treatment.

Some Brief Facts On Diabetes Insipidus

The amount of water conserved in the body is controlled by the Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), which is also called vasopressin. Diabetes insipidus often results due to ADH deficiency, and in such cases, it is called Central Diabetes Insipidus. It might also occur when the kidneys do not function properly in response to ADH, and in such cases, it is called Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

Sometimes, the problem may be a result of drug usage, especially drugs like Lithium and Amphotericin B. This condition affects adults as well as children.

The common symptoms you may experience in diabetes insipidus are polyuria, polydipsia, and easy fatigability. In children, there may be additional symptoms like excessive crying and bedwetting.

Diabetes Insipidus Treatment Measures

Diabetes insipidus treatment measures can be divided mainly into two types – general measures and hormonal therapy.

General Diabetes Insipidus Treatment Measures

    • Maintaining Hydration

      The most common problem associated with diabetes insipidus is dehydration. The excessive loss of fluid due to polyuria often causes the deficit in the body. You need to keep your body well hydrated by consuming sufficient amounts of fluids. However, it is also very important that you do not drink too much water, as excessive water consumption can cause serious side effects.

    • Maintaining Body Weight

      You could experience a drop in your body weight as well due to the amount of water lost from the body. You can keep this in check by consuming enough fluids.

As a precautionary measure, it is always advisable to carry an identification card if you suffer from diabetes insipidus. This card should have information about your name, address, the medical condition that you have, and the medications you are taking. This will ensure that you get immediate medical help when you need it.

Hormonal Diabetes Insipidus Treatment Measures

As discussed above, in some cases, diabetes insipidus can be the result of a deficiency of the anti diuretic hormone vasopressin. This hormone is responsible for retaining water in the body. The medication used to treat this disorder is called desmopressin acetate (DDAVP), which is similar to the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). DDAVP can be administered by injection into the muscle or by nasal spray. There are newer medications like Terlipressin, Lypressin, and Felypressin which are similar to DDAVP.

Sometimes diabetes insipidus can be controlled with drugs that stimulate the production of antidiuretic hormones such as chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, and clofibrate.

In the case of people who suffer from nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, water pills (thiazide diuretics) may be used. Thiazide diuretics have been shown to stimulate the production of a hormone that helps the body retain salt, and this additional salt prevents the loss of water in the body.

Through these diabetes insipidus treatment measures, the disease can be effectively controlled and managed. It is important to follow your physician’s instructions before proceeding with these measures.

What Is Diabetes Insipidus? – The Bare Basics You Need To Know

Diabetes insipidus is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to retain water in the body, and this happens when there’s an Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) deficiency. The hormone helps the body retain water, and changes in its level can affect the body adversely. To learn more about what is diabetes insipidus, you should first be aware of its types.

what is diabetes insipidus

If you know what is diabetes insipidus, you might have heard that polydipsia is one of its symptoms.

There are two types of diabetes insipidus:

  • Central Diabetes Insipidus
  • Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Sometimes, the condition may also result due to the use of drugs like Lithium and Amphotericin B. It affects adults as well as children.

What Is Diabetes Insipidus Caused By?

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of:

  • Brain tumors
  • Head trauma
  • Post surgical damage of brain or associated structures
  • Decrease in size of pituitary gland due to auto antibodies
  • Genetic transmission

The exact cause is not known in 30-50% of people who are affected by central diabetes insipidus.

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

This type of diabetes insipidus results when the kidneys do not function properly in response to the antidiuretic hormone. This can occur due to electrolyte imbalance, medications, systemic processes, and even kidney disease.

  • Medications like lithium, amphotericin, gentamicin and loop diuretics can cause diabetes insipidus. Lithium accumulates in the collecting tubule cells, interfering with several water/urea channels and impairing urinary concentrating ability.
  • An imbalance of electrolytes like hypercalcemia and hypokalemia can cause diabetes insipidus.
  • Kidney related conditions like obstructive uropathy, chronic kidney disease, post-kidney transplant measures, and infections can cause the disease.
  • Systemic processes like sarcoid, amyloid, multiple myeloma, sickle cell disease, and pregnancy can cause diabetes insipidus.

The Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus

Once you’ve understood what is diabetes insipidus and how it’s caused, you should be aware of the symptoms of the disease, in order to spot it properly. The main symptoms are:

  • Polyuria (Excessive urination)
  • Polydipsia (Excessive thirst, in spite of consuming large quantities of water)
  • Disturbed sleep pattern
  • Fatigue

Tests For Diagnosing Diabetes Insipidus

The estimation of urinary electrolytes like sodium, chloride, and calcium can help in diagnosing the condition. Serum osmolality is measured along with the specific gravity for this purpose.

The rate at which the patient urinates over 24 hours is also noted, as the volume of urine will be significantly more in individuals with diabetes insipidus. The glucose levels in blood and urine are also measured to confirm the condition.

Treatment Measures For Diabetes Insipidus

The treatment measures can be divided mainly into two parts: general measures and hormonal therapy.

General Measures

There are two aims that general diabetes insipidus treatment measures seek to fulfil.

  • Maintaining hydration
  • Maintaining body weight

This can be done through the proper intake of fluids and by choosing the right diet, with all the essential nutrients, which will help the body retain its weight.

Hormonal Therapy

If you’ve correctly understood what is diabetes insipidus, you’ll remember that it’s caused by a hormonal deficiency. There are medicines that can help in generating this hormone, and these can be used for hormonal therapy.

The medication used to treat this disorder is called Desmopressin Acetate (DDAVP), and this is similar to ADH. It is usually administered through injections or nasal sprays.

Other medications like Terlipressin, Lypressin, and Felypressin are similar to DDAVP and can be used too.

Drugs like chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, and clofibrate help the body churn out more ADH, and these are used in some cases. Doctors might also prescribe medication that helps your body retain salt, as this can in turn help the body retain water.

By understanding what is diabetes insipidus, you can watch out for the symptoms and stay informed so that immediate treatment measures can be taken in case the disease surfaces.

Are You Prediabetic – How To Know If You’re At Risk

Prediabetes is a condition in which people have glucose levels that are higher than normal, but not high enough to indicate diabetes. The number of prediabetic people is increasing worldwide, and usually, the glucose levels in such people start rising 7 to 10 years before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 79 million people in the U.S. over the age of 20 are prediabetic.

prediabetic

People who are obese face a greater risk of being prediabetic.

How To Know If You’re Prediabetic – A Quick Checklist

Based on the following factors, you can determine if you’re prediabetic – a key revelation that will help you work towards bettering your health and lifestyle.

  • Family History: If one of your parents or siblings has diabetes, there are chances that you might be prediabetic.
  • High Cholesterol: If the cholesterol level in your body is high, your chances of being affected by diabetes can rise significantly. High levels of LDL and VLDL (bad cholesterol), or low levels of HDL (good cholesterol) can indicate a high chance of you being prediabetic.
  • Sedentary Lifestyle: If you follow a sedentary lifestyle without much exercise, you have a strong risk of developing prediabetes.
  • Obesity: When your body mass index is greater than 25, there will be a subsequent decrease in the peripheral utilization of insulin, which might lead to diabetes at a later stage.
  • High Risk Ethnic Group: People who belong to Aboriginal, South Asian, Asian, African, or Hispanic backgrounds face an elevated risk of being prediabetic.
  • Age: People who are older than 45 years of age are often diagnosed with prediabetes. At this age, it is advisable to get health checkups done at regular intervals, in order to detect such problems.
  • History of Gestational Diabetes: Women who face diabetes during pregnancy (also called gestational diabetes) can often experience prediabetic symptoms. Mainly, if the weight of the newly born infant is greater than 9 lb (4 kg), the chances of prediabetes in the mother is very high.
  • High Blood Pressure: A systolic blood pressure that’s greater than 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure that’s greater than 90 mmHg might indicate an elevated risk of diabetes.
  • Classic Diabetes Symptoms: The primary symptoms of diabetes, including increased hunger and thirst, loss of appetite, and a weak immune system, can together indicate the presence of prediabetes in an individual.

Tests To Check If You’re Prediabetic

The following tests are carried out in order to determine if an individual is prediabetic.

Fasting Plasma Glucose [FPG] Test: A fasting glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL indicates Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG). This indicates a definite risk of prediabetes.

Two-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test [OGTT]: This test is run after the individual is made to ingest a standardized 75 gm glucose solution. If the blood sugar level lies between 140 and 199 mg/dL, prediabetes can be confirmed.

Glycated Hemoglobin Level: The American Diabetes Association’s current guidelines promote the evaluation of Glycated Hemoglobin as a vital part of prediabetes diagnosis. A value of 5.7 to 6.4% suggests that the individual is prediabetic. If the value crosses the cut-off point of 6.5%, the individual can be classified as diabetic.

Prediabetes should not be ignored as the condition may lead to diabetes in the future. It signals the likely onset of a more serious problem, so if you’re prediabetic, you should take the hint and work towards maintaining and improving your health.

Framing A Diabetes Diet – Five Food Items You Should Avoid

Dietary modification plays a vital role in the management of diabetes, and framing a diabetes diet is an essential step that should be taken.

Why Do You Need A Diabetes Diet?

A good diabetes diet can add on to the advantages of the medical treatment, as it will help in keeping the blood sugar levels under check. The main aims of dietary modifications are:

  • To maintain normal blood sugar levels
  • To maintain adequate nutrition
  • To maintain the desirable body mass index (BMI)
  • To avoid diabetic complications

Foods To Avoid In Your Diabetes Diet

Sugar

Foods or beverages with high sugar content are to be avoided in your diabetes diet.

Fruit punch, fruit drinks, sweetened soda, desserts, sweets, confectionery, jams, and jellies are the commonly consumed food items with high sugar content, so these have to be consumed in small quantities.

Consuming these in large quantities can raise blood sugar levels, and this can lead to long term complications.

diabetes diet

While setting up a diabetes diet plan, scratch out canned food from the list.

Canned Foods

Canned foods are readily available in the market. Canned vegetables, fruits, snacks, fish, and meat are oft consumed food items.

People who live in an urban setting, including diabetics, resort to canned foods as they are ready to eat and take less time to prepare. But it should be noted that these canned items are rich in sodium and preservatives.

Excessive sodium leads to an increase in the blood pressure, and high blood pressure along with diabetes often leads to blood vessel damage and heart disease. This is one main reason for you to skip canned foods while framing your diabetes diet.

Fried Foods

Fried foods are high in calories and low in nutrition, and consuming a high calorie diet can naturally lead to weight gain.

Fried food contains a lot of dietary fat, which makes the management of diabetes a tad difficult.

An excess of calories can lead to obesity, which can cause further serious complications for diabetics. The American Diabetes Association recommends cutting back on high-calorie snacks and desserts, as these should only be consumed in moderation.

Dairy Products

Whole milk, regular yogurt, regular cottage cheese, butter, and ice-creams are to be avoided while framing a diabetes diet, as these are very rich in calories.

Instead, diabetics can choose skimmed milk, low-fat yogurt, and low-fat cottage cheese. Such food items don’t increase the blood sugar levels beyond acceptable normal levels and long term complications of diabetes can in turn be prevented.

Beverages

Beverages such as sodas, beer, sweetened tea, coffee with sugar and cream, chocolate drinks, and energy drinks should not be included in a diabetes diet.

Alcohol can be consumed in moderate quantities, but only if blood sugar levels are well-controlled. Alcohol is processed in the body just like how fat is processed, and alcohol generates almost as many calories as fatty food items.

For this reason, excessive drinking can lead to an increase in weight, affecting the bodily balance in diabetics.

Diabetes is a chronic condition, and it can be managed only if stringent dietary guidelines are followed. You can include green and leafy vegetables and a whole lot of natural products in your diabetes diet – but ensure that you stay away from the above food items!

The Complete Diabetes Diet Plan For Type 1 Diabetics

Dietary modification in the form of a complete diabetes diet plan plays a vital role in the management of the condition.

Why Do You Need A Diabetes Diet Plan?

Following such a diet adds on to the advantages of insulin therapy treatment by keeping the blood sugar levels under check.

The main aims of dietary modifications are:

  • To maintain normal blood sugar levels
  • To maintain adequate nutrition
  • To maintain the desirable body mass index (BMI)

The amount of calorie intake for a diabetic has to be around 1600 Kcal/day. It should be a balanced diet that mainly contains carbohydrates (60-70%), fat (15-20%), proteins (20-25%) and dietary fibre (25gms/1000Kcal).

In diabetes, it is important to know the amount of carbohydrates taken. Information on this will help in determining the amount of insulin to be taken to maintain blood sugar control.

The other two major nutrients, protein and fat, also have an effect on blood glucose levels, though it is not as rapid or great as the effect that carbohydrates have. A balance of carbohydrate intake, insulin, and physical activity is necessary for the keeping blood sugar levels constant.

In diabetes it is important to keep the carbohydrate content of the diet consistent from day to day.

diabetes diet plan

Including oats in your diabetes diet plan can help you maintain your blood sugar levels

The Diabetes Diet Plan – Choosing What To Eat

The golden rule in planning a diet is to ensure that your blood sugar levels do not shoot up. To control this, it is important to consume foods that have low glycemic index and other low calorie foods.

The glycemic index provides a measure of how quickly blood sugar levels rise after eating a particular type of food. Commonly used food items with low glycemic index are beans, whole grains like wheat, brown rice, and oats. The other common foods with low glycemic index are vegetables and most sweet fruits.

Common Foods and Their Benefits

While framing your diabetes diet plan, you can include the following foods, due to the advantages specified below each item.

Beans

  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Stabilizes blood sugar

Beets

  • Controls blood pressure
  • Protects the heart
  • Aids weight loss

Brown Rice

  • Lowers Cholesterol
  • Helps prevent cancer
  • Contains essential minerals

Onions And Garlic

  • Rich in fibre
  • Protects the heart
  • Helps prevent cancer

Oats

  • Stabilizes blood sugar
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease
  • Boosts immune system

Lemon

  • Prevents cancer
  • Improves immunity
  • Low in calories

Apples

  • Stabilises blood sugar
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease

Oranges

  • Prevents cancer
  • Low in calories
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease

Bananas

  • Low in glycemic index
  • Builds bones
  • Protects from heart disease

Grapes

  • Combats cancer
  • Protects the heart

Fish

  • Protects the heart
  • Boosts memory
  • Supports the immune system

Chicken

  • Good source of protein
  • Contains homocysteine, which protects the heart

Honey 

  • Promotes better blood sugar control
  • Protects the body from repeated infections

Green Tea

  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Protects from heart disease
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Promotes weight loss

Olive Oil

  • Improves memory in old age
  • Protects from heart disease
  • Helps in digestion

Based on the above foods, a daily diabetes diet plan can be easily framed.

Diabetes Diet Plan – The Dos And Don’ts

Here are a few things you should avoid doing when you’re following treatment for diabetes.

  • Eating too much
  • Drinking soda or other sugary drinks
  • Eating fast foods frequently
  • Eating out a lot
  • Eating high-fat dairy products
  • Consuming red meat
  • Eating unhealthy fats and oils
  • Often skipping breakfast

You should also follow these tips:

  • Eat smaller servings
  • Drink water or diet drinks
  • Eat less fast food – no more than once a week
  • Prepare more meals at home
  • Switch to 1% or non-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and frozen yogurt
  • Try fish, chicken, or turkey
  • Switch to healthier oils like olive and canola
  • Plan a healthy breakfast every day

To keep your blood sugar levels in check, you should eat right and stay healthy. Carefully framing a diabetes diet plan with your physician’s inputs will definitely help in this regard.

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms – What You Should Watch Out For

Learning about type 2 diabetes symptoms is essential as this will help in speeding up the diagnosis and treatment for the condition.

Who Can Face Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, also called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), occurs in people whose bodily ability to utilize insulin in their peripheral tissues (like muscles, fat, and liver) is low. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with a defect in the beta cells’ ability to secrete insulin.

This type of diabetes is also associated with family history of diabetes and other factors like obesity, a sedentary life that lacks exercise, and old age.

Type 2 diabetes is a form of adult onset diabetes which generally occurs after the age of 40 years. It can appear at an earlier age as well in people who don’t get enough physical exercise.  Treatment options in this type of diabetes include diet modifications in the form of a low calorie diet, proper exercise, weight reduction techniques, oral medications, and insulin as well.

type 2 diabetes symptoms

Retinal damage is one of the common type 2 diabetes symptoms.

What Are The Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms?

The common type 2 diabetes symptoms include:

  • Frequent Urination, Thirst, and Dry Mouth: People who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus feel the need to urinate frequently, and as a result of dehydration, experience dry mouth and thirst.
  • Increased Hunger: As cells are unable to absorb the insulin in the blood, diabetics are bound to feel hungry often.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Since the cells can’t utilize glucose, unexplained sudden weight loss is a key sign that the condition exists.
  • Fatigue: Lack of energy to do day-to-day tasks is another significant sign of type 2 diabetes.
  • Blurred Vision: The blood vessels in the eyes are affected by excessive glucose and retinal damage due to this is another common symptom.
  • Frequent Infections of the Skin, Urinary Tract, or Vagina:  Elevated blood sugar levels lead to an increased amount of glucose in all body secretions. This also weakens the normal immunity of the body, causing frequent infections.

Who Else Can Face Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms?

Apart from these type 2 diabetes symptoms, there are other risk factors that can lead to the condition. It can affect:

  • Those With Pre-Diabetes Conditions:  Pre-diabetes is a condition in which the blood sugar levels are on the borderline. People with this condition are susceptible to type 2 diabetes.
  • Those With A Family History of Diabetes: Diabetes is genetically mediated as well. People with one or both parents having diabetes are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Those With A Stressful Lifestyle: People who are aged above 40 years and have stressful or sedentary jobs are at risk for type 2 diabetes.
  • Those With Increased Body Mass Index: The Body Mass Index (BMI) is an anthropometric index of general obesity which is calculated by using one’s height and weight. People with high BMI are prone to this problem.
  • Those With Increased Waist Circumference (Central Obesity): Measuring the circumference of the waist is a simple procedure that can be done at home. Males who have a circumference of more than 90 cm and females who have a circumference of more than 85 cm are at risk.
  • Women With History of High Blood Sugar During Pregnancy: Women who have had high blood sugar during pregnancy are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later.

Treatment should be started immediately once these type 2 diabetes symptoms are detected and diagnosed.