About Dr. Kiran Kishore

Dr. Kiran Kishore (M.D., MBBS) is a Consulting Physician and Diabetologist at Srinivasa Clinic & Diabetes Care Center, Hyderabad. He also serves as the Assistant Professor at Bhaskar Medical College. Dr. Kishore specializes in Pharmacology and Diabetology, and has over six years of experience as a Diabetologist.

Are You Prediabetic – How To Know If You’re At Risk

Prediabetes is a condition in which people have glucose levels that are higher than normal, but not high enough to indicate diabetes. The number of prediabetic people is increasing worldwide, and usually, the glucose levels in such people start rising 7 to 10 years before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 79 million people in the U.S. over the age of 20 are prediabetic.

prediabetic

People who are obese face a greater risk of being prediabetic.

How To Know If You’re Prediabetic – A Quick Checklist

Based on the following factors, you can determine if you’re prediabetic – a key revelation that will help you work towards bettering your health and lifestyle.

  • Family History: If one of your parents or siblings has diabetes, there are chances that you might be prediabetic.
  • High Cholesterol: If the cholesterol level in your body is high, your chances of being affected by diabetes can rise significantly. High levels of LDL and VLDL (bad cholesterol), or low levels of HDL (good cholesterol) can indicate a high chance of you being prediabetic.
  • Sedentary Lifestyle: If you follow a sedentary lifestyle without much exercise, you have a strong risk of developing prediabetes.
  • Obesity: When your body mass index is greater than 25, there will be a subsequent decrease in the peripheral utilization of insulin, which might lead to diabetes at a later stage.
  • High Risk Ethnic Group: People who belong to Aboriginal, South Asian, Asian, African, or Hispanic backgrounds face an elevated risk of being prediabetic.
  • Age: People who are older than 45 years of age are often diagnosed with prediabetes. At this age, it is advisable to get health checkups done at regular intervals, in order to detect such problems.
  • History of Gestational Diabetes: Women who face diabetes during pregnancy (also called gestational diabetes) can often experience prediabetic symptoms. Mainly, if the weight of the newly born infant is greater than 9 lb (4 kg), the chances of prediabetes in the mother is very high.
  • High Blood Pressure: A systolic blood pressure that’s greater than 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure that’s greater than 90 mmHg might indicate an elevated risk of diabetes.
  • Classic Diabetes Symptoms: The primary symptoms of diabetes, including increased hunger and thirst, loss of appetite, and a weak immune system, can together indicate the presence of prediabetes in an individual.

Tests To Check If You’re Prediabetic

The following tests are carried out in order to determine if an individual is prediabetic.

Fasting Plasma Glucose [FPG] Test: A fasting glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL indicates Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG). This indicates a definite risk of prediabetes.

Two-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test [OGTT]: This test is run after the individual is made to ingest a standardized 75 gm glucose solution. If the blood sugar level lies between 140 and 199 mg/dL, prediabetes can be confirmed.

Glycated Hemoglobin Level: The American Diabetes Association’s current guidelines promote the evaluation of Glycated Hemoglobin as a vital part of prediabetes diagnosis. A value of 5.7 to 6.4% suggests that the individual is prediabetic. If the value crosses the cut-off point of 6.5%, the individual can be classified as diabetic.

Prediabetes should not be ignored as the condition may lead to diabetes in the future. It signals the likely onset of a more serious problem, so if you’re prediabetic, you should take the hint and work towards maintaining and improving your health.

Watching Out For Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms – Signs That Spell Danger

Diabetes insipidus is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to retain water in the body. The amount of water conserved is controlled by the Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH), which is also called vasopressin. Diabetes insipidus symptoms start showing when the process of water retention is somehow affected.

The Causes Behind Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms

Understanding the primary diabetes insipidus causes is key to understanding the condition and its symptoms. This condition is normally a result of ADH deficiency, and under such cases, it is termed  Central Diabetes Insipidus. It can also result when the kidneys do not function properly in response to ADH, and in such cases the disorder is called Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

Sometimes, diabetes insipidus symptoms may also come to forefront due to the use of drugs like Lithium and Amphotericin B. It affects both adults and children.

The Most Common Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms

Given below are the signs and symptoms you may experience if you’re suffering from diabetes insipidus.

Polyuria (Excessive Urination)

People who are affected by diabetes insipidus pass excess urine that is often colourless. This is an easily noticeable symptom, as they may feel the need to urinate every 15-20 minutes. The amount of urine passed by affected individuals can range from 3 liters per day in mild cases to 20 liters per day in severe cases.

Polydipsia (Excessive Thirst)

Individuals with diabetes insipidus also face extreme thirst and a compulsive need to drink water regularly. A lingering feeling of dehydration contributes to this need of theirs. This symptom will persist even after they consume large quantities of water repeatedly, so this is an easily noticeable sign as well.

diabetes insipidus symptoms

Excessive thirst is one of the most common diabetes insipidus symptoms.

Disturbed Sleep Patterns

The constant need to urinate also tends to interfere with the sleep pattern of individuals who are affected by diabetes insipidus, as they will find it hard to fall asleep due to the fear of wetting the bed.

The disturbed sleep pattern might affect their daily routine too, as they’ll feel drowsy throughout the day.

Irritability And Fatigue

Diabetes insipidus brings about fatigue, and for this reason, affected individuals tend to be tired all the time. The disturbed sleep pattern (discussed in the previous point) also contributes to an inability to focus on daily tasks, due to fatigue and dehydration.

Signs of irritability and a general lack of concentration are major diabetes insipidus symptoms that need to be noted as well.

Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms In Children

Detecting the condition in children is always a challenge, and for this reason, infants and young children need to be constantly monitored for the main diabetes insipidus symptoms.

Some of the signs that might help parents are:

  • Excessive crying
  • Irritability
  • Slower than expected growth
  • High body temperature
  • Unexplained weight loss

In older children, diabetes insipidus symptoms include:

  • Bedwetting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue

It is imperative to consult a doctor regularly for proper diabetes insipidus diagnosis and detection in such cases. Once the doctor notices the diabetes insipidus symptoms, he’ll be able to prescribe effective treatment measures.

Framing A Diabetes Diet – Five Food Items You Should Avoid

Dietary modification plays a vital role in the management of diabetes, and framing a diabetes diet is an essential step that should be taken.

Why Do You Need A Diabetes Diet?

A good diabetes diet can add on to the advantages of the medical treatment, as it will help in keeping the blood sugar levels under check. The main aims of dietary modifications are:

  • To maintain normal blood sugar levels
  • To maintain adequate nutrition
  • To maintain the desirable body mass index (BMI)
  • To avoid diabetic complications

Foods To Avoid In Your Diabetes Diet

Sugar

Foods or beverages with high sugar content are to be avoided in your diabetes diet.

Fruit punch, fruit drinks, sweetened soda, desserts, sweets, confectionery, jams, and jellies are the commonly consumed food items with high sugar content, so these have to be consumed in small quantities.

Consuming these in large quantities can raise blood sugar levels, and this can lead to long term complications.

diabetes diet

While setting up a diabetes diet plan, scratch out canned food from the list.

Canned Foods

Canned foods are readily available in the market. Canned vegetables, fruits, snacks, fish, and meat are oft consumed food items.

People who live in an urban setting, including diabetics, resort to canned foods as they are ready to eat and take less time to prepare. But it should be noted that these canned items are rich in sodium and preservatives.

Excessive sodium leads to an increase in the blood pressure, and high blood pressure along with diabetes often leads to blood vessel damage and heart disease. This is one main reason for you to skip canned foods while framing your diabetes diet.

Fried Foods

Fried foods are high in calories and low in nutrition, and consuming a high calorie diet can naturally lead to weight gain.

Fried food contains a lot of dietary fat, which makes the management of diabetes a tad difficult.

An excess of calories can lead to obesity, which can cause further serious complications for diabetics. The American Diabetes Association recommends cutting back on high-calorie snacks and desserts, as these should only be consumed in moderation.

Dairy Products

Whole milk, regular yogurt, regular cottage cheese, butter, and ice-creams are to be avoided while framing a diabetes diet, as these are very rich in calories.

Instead, diabetics can choose skimmed milk, low-fat yogurt, and low-fat cottage cheese. Such food items don’t increase the blood sugar levels beyond acceptable normal levels and long term complications of diabetes can in turn be prevented.

Beverages

Beverages such as sodas, beer, sweetened tea, coffee with sugar and cream, chocolate drinks, and energy drinks should not be included in a diabetes diet.

Alcohol can be consumed in moderate quantities, but only if blood sugar levels are well-controlled. Alcohol is processed in the body just like how fat is processed, and alcohol generates almost as many calories as fatty food items.

For this reason, excessive drinking can lead to an increase in weight, affecting the bodily balance in diabetics.

Diabetes is a chronic condition, and it can be managed only if stringent dietary guidelines are followed. You can include green and leafy vegetables and a whole lot of natural products in your diabetes diet – but ensure that you stay away from the above food items!

The Complete Diabetes Diet Plan For Type 1 Diabetics

Dietary modification in the form of a complete diabetes diet plan plays a vital role in the management of the condition.

Why Do You Need A Diabetes Diet Plan?

Following such a diet adds on to the advantages of insulin therapy treatment by keeping the blood sugar levels under check.

The main aims of dietary modifications are:

  • To maintain normal blood sugar levels
  • To maintain adequate nutrition
  • To maintain the desirable body mass index (BMI)

The amount of calorie intake for a diabetic has to be around 1600 Kcal/day. It should be a balanced diet that mainly contains carbohydrates (60-70%), fat (15-20%), proteins (20-25%) and dietary fibre (25gms/1000Kcal).

In diabetes, it is important to know the amount of carbohydrates taken. Information on this will help in determining the amount of insulin to be taken to maintain blood sugar control.

The other two major nutrients, protein and fat, also have an effect on blood glucose levels, though it is not as rapid or great as the effect that carbohydrates have. A balance of carbohydrate intake, insulin, and physical activity is necessary for the keeping blood sugar levels constant.

In diabetes it is important to keep the carbohydrate content of the diet consistent from day to day.

diabetes diet plan

Including oats in your diabetes diet plan can help you maintain your blood sugar levels

The Diabetes Diet Plan – Choosing What To Eat

The golden rule in planning a diet is to ensure that your blood sugar levels do not shoot up. To control this, it is important to consume foods that have low glycemic index and other low calorie foods.

The glycemic index provides a measure of how quickly blood sugar levels rise after eating a particular type of food. Commonly used food items with low glycemic index are beans, whole grains like wheat, brown rice, and oats. The other common foods with low glycemic index are vegetables and most sweet fruits.

Common Foods and Their Benefits

While framing your diabetes diet plan, you can include the following foods, due to the advantages specified below each item.

Beans

  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Stabilizes blood sugar

Beets

  • Controls blood pressure
  • Protects the heart
  • Aids weight loss

Brown Rice

  • Lowers Cholesterol
  • Helps prevent cancer
  • Contains essential minerals

Onions And Garlic

  • Rich in fibre
  • Protects the heart
  • Helps prevent cancer

Oats

  • Stabilizes blood sugar
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease
  • Boosts immune system

Lemon

  • Prevents cancer
  • Improves immunity
  • Low in calories

Apples

  • Stabilises blood sugar
  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease

Oranges

  • Prevents cancer
  • Low in calories
  • Reduces the risk of heart disease

Bananas

  • Low in glycemic index
  • Builds bones
  • Protects from heart disease

Grapes

  • Combats cancer
  • Protects the heart

Fish

  • Protects the heart
  • Boosts memory
  • Supports the immune system

Chicken

  • Good source of protein
  • Contains homocysteine, which protects the heart

Honey 

  • Promotes better blood sugar control
  • Protects the body from repeated infections

Green Tea

  • Lowers cholesterol
  • Protects from heart disease
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Promotes weight loss

Olive Oil

  • Improves memory in old age
  • Protects from heart disease
  • Helps in digestion

Based on the above foods, a daily diabetes diet plan can be easily framed.

Diabetes Diet Plan – The Dos And Don’ts

Here are a few things you should avoid doing when you’re following treatment for diabetes.

  • Eating too much
  • Drinking soda or other sugary drinks
  • Eating fast foods frequently
  • Eating out a lot
  • Eating high-fat dairy products
  • Consuming red meat
  • Eating unhealthy fats and oils
  • Often skipping breakfast

You should also follow these tips:

  • Eat smaller servings
  • Drink water or diet drinks
  • Eat less fast food – no more than once a week
  • Prepare more meals at home
  • Switch to 1% or non-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and frozen yogurt
  • Try fish, chicken, or turkey
  • Switch to healthier oils like olive and canola
  • Plan a healthy breakfast every day

To keep your blood sugar levels in check, you should eat right and stay healthy. Carefully framing a diabetes diet plan with your physician’s inputs will definitely help in this regard.

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms – What You Should Watch Out For

Learning about type 2 diabetes symptoms is essential as this will help in speeding up the diagnosis and treatment for the condition.

Who Can Face Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, also called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), occurs in people whose bodily ability to utilize insulin in their peripheral tissues (like muscles, fat, and liver) is low. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with a defect in the beta cells’ ability to secrete insulin.

This type of diabetes is also associated with family history of diabetes and other factors like obesity, a sedentary life that lacks exercise, and old age.

Type 2 diabetes is a form of adult onset diabetes which generally occurs after the age of 40 years. It can appear at an earlier age as well in people who don’t get enough physical exercise.  Treatment options in this type of diabetes include diet modifications in the form of a low calorie diet, proper exercise, weight reduction techniques, oral medications, and insulin as well.

type 2 diabetes symptoms

Retinal damage is one of the common type 2 diabetes symptoms.

What Are The Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms?

The common type 2 diabetes symptoms include:

  • Frequent Urination, Thirst, and Dry Mouth: People who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus feel the need to urinate frequently, and as a result of dehydration, experience dry mouth and thirst.
  • Increased Hunger: As cells are unable to absorb the insulin in the blood, diabetics are bound to feel hungry often.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Since the cells can’t utilize glucose, unexplained sudden weight loss is a key sign that the condition exists.
  • Fatigue: Lack of energy to do day-to-day tasks is another significant sign of type 2 diabetes.
  • Blurred Vision: The blood vessels in the eyes are affected by excessive glucose and retinal damage due to this is another common symptom.
  • Frequent Infections of the Skin, Urinary Tract, or Vagina:  Elevated blood sugar levels lead to an increased amount of glucose in all body secretions. This also weakens the normal immunity of the body, causing frequent infections.

Who Else Can Face Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms?

Apart from these type 2 diabetes symptoms, there are other risk factors that can lead to the condition. It can affect:

  • Those With Pre-Diabetes Conditions:  Pre-diabetes is a condition in which the blood sugar levels are on the borderline. People with this condition are susceptible to type 2 diabetes.
  • Those With A Family History of Diabetes: Diabetes is genetically mediated as well. People with one or both parents having diabetes are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Those With A Stressful Lifestyle: People who are aged above 40 years and have stressful or sedentary jobs are at risk for type 2 diabetes.
  • Those With Increased Body Mass Index: The Body Mass Index (BMI) is an anthropometric index of general obesity which is calculated by using one’s height and weight. People with high BMI are prone to this problem.
  • Those With Increased Waist Circumference (Central Obesity): Measuring the circumference of the waist is a simple procedure that can be done at home. Males who have a circumference of more than 90 cm and females who have a circumference of more than 85 cm are at risk.
  • Women With History of High Blood Sugar During Pregnancy: Women who have had high blood sugar during pregnancy are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later.

Treatment should be started immediately once these type 2 diabetes symptoms are detected and diagnosed.

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms – Identifying The Problem

There are definite type 1 diabetes symptoms that affected individuals exhibit, and these can be noted in order to identify the condition.

Type I diabetes mellitus, also termed Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus, occurs in people with insulin deficiency. The absolute or partial loss of beta cells (cells that secrete insulin) causes this condition.

Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed in children and young adults, and it is uncommon as it accounts for close to 5% of all diabetes cases. Both men and women are susceptible to type 1 diabetes, and Caucasians are more susceptible to the disease than African Americans.

When Are Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms Exhibited?

In people with type 1 diabetes, sugar is not absorbed by various cells of the body because of deficiency of insulin. This leads to a rise in sugar level in the blood. When sugar builds up in the blood instead of going into these cells, the cells in the body are deprived of nutrients and therefore, other systems in the body need to provide energy for many important bodily functions.

This is when the symptoms start showing.

type 1 diabetes symptoms

Frequent thirst is one of the primary type 1 diabetes symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms To Watch Out For

There are certain key type 1 diabetes symptoms that affected patients present with:

  • Frequent Urination, Increased Thirst, Dry Mouth:  More urine is formed in order to clear the excess sugar in the blood. Along with the clearance of glucose, there is also considerable loss of water, leading to dehydration. The patient might experience dryness in the mouth due to such dehydration, and a constant feeling of thirst.
  • Increased Hunger: In spite of frequent food intake, people who suffer from type 1 diabetes might feel hungry regularly. This happens when the cells fail to utilise the glucose in the blood due to the lack of insulin. The energy is not absorbed, leading to constant hunger.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Significant weight loss is one among the primary type 1 diabetes symptoms. More so, it is unintentional weight loss, due to the inability of the cells to utilise glucose.
  • Fatigue: Diabetics tend to feel weak and tired even after minimal work that they routinely do.
  • Blurred Vision: Excessive glucose in the blood causes damage to the blood vessels in the eyes. This leads to retinal damage, thus causing disruption in normal vision.
  • Frequent Infections of the Skin, Urinary Tract, or Vagina:  The elevation of blood sugar levels leads to increased amounts of glucose in all body secretions. This also weakens the normal immunity of the body, causing frequent infections.

Many people experience one or more of these type 1 diabetes symptoms. In some cases, people with very high blood sugar may face an acute complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, which is a medical emergency. These people have symptoms like:

  • Deep, rapid breathing
  • Dry skin and mouth
  • Flushed face
  • Fruity breath odour
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stomach pain

When diabetes is not well controlled, a number of serious or life-threatening problems may develop due to the deposition of fatty substances in the blood vessels, otherwise termed atherosclerosis. This affects the major organs of the body including the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, brain and eyes. For this reason, treatment should be immediately started once the initial type 1 diabetes symptoms start showing.

Diabetes Prevention Tips – How To Avoid The Condition

Why Do People Need Diabetes Prevention Tips?

The answer is quite simple – diabetes is a condition that’s spreading day by day in society like an epidemic. Globally, 347 million people have diabetes, and more than 80% of the deaths in developing countries are due to diabetes. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has predicted that diabetes deaths are likely to increase by two thirds by 2030.

This brings about the need for awareness about diabetes, the complications associated with it, and most importantly, diabetes prevention tips that help people delay the condition. It is important to aim for primary prevention of diabetes, particularly in countries where there is a high prevalence.

diabetes prevention

Taking the stairs instead of an elevator can help in diabetes prevention.

The Risk Factors Of Diabetes

While genetics play an important role, an individual still has the ability to influence his health to prevent diabetes. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are the biggest diabetes risk factors that are controllable. It goes without saying that people should watch their weight and exercise more. At first, it is important to identify the risk factors that the person is carrying with him or her.

The risk factors that could lead to diabetes are:

  • Age (above 40 years)
  • Positive family history of diabetes
  • Increased abdominal fatness (Waist circumference Male >=90 cm, Female >=85 cm)
  • Pre-diabetes(Impaired glucose tolerance)
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Smoking

Diabetes Prevention Tips For Better Health

Here are a few diabetes prevention tips that can help avoid the condition.

Diabetes Prevention Tip #1: Physical Activity and Weight Reduction

  • Pursue activities like jogging, walking, swimming, and skipping.
  • Walk for around 30 minutes daily.
  • Always climb stairs instead of using the elevator. Climbing stairs for 10 minutes is almost equal to 30 minutes of walking.
  • Avoid riding a motorized vehicle for short distances, and use a bicycle.
  • Minimize the hours you spend in front of a TV.
  • Beware of computer and internet addiction, because it keeps you immobile for hours.

Diabetes Prevention Tip #2:  Stress Reduction 

  • Yoga and meditation can effectively help you relieve stress.
  • To reduce stress, you can also try performing deep breathing exercises.
  • Listening to soothing music regularly can be a stress relieving exercise.

Diabetes Prevention Tip #3: Dietary Modifications

  • The amount of calories you take in should be perfectly sufficient for your daily activities, so avoid overeating.
  • Green and leafy vegetables keep the body healthy and functioning, so include them in the diet.
  • Always buy whole fruits and consume them. Fruit juices are best avoided, as fruits have more nutrients in their whole form.
  • Ensure that you cut down on carbohydrate-rich food and increase your intake of fibre-rich food items.
  • Include food items that are rich in proteins and include cereals in your daily diet.
  • Fried food items and junk food items that are rich in fat are detrimental to health and best avoided.
  • Milk products and sweets are best moderated, for long term health.
  • Have a set number of proper meals everyday, and avoid bingeing on snacks between meal hours.

The American Diabetes Prevention Program, a large prevention study of people at high risk for diabetes, showed that lifestyle intervention in the form of weight loss and increased physical activity reduced the development of type 2 diabetes by 58% during a 3-year period.

Some diabetes prevention tips also recommend the use of medications. The use of medications like metformin and acarbose has been shown in trials to prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. It is likely that one or a combination of these approaches could make diabetes prevention a reality in the near future.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment – The Options Available

Type 1 diabetes treatment mainly involves lifestyle changes, because such treatment will help patients stay away from cardiac or renal complications over a period of time.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM),  occurs in people with insulin deficiency. This hormone is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels, and it is secreted by the pancreas. The condition can result due to absolute or partial loss of beta cells, which are the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin.

Firstly, before type 1 diabetes treatment is started, the diagnosis has to be accurate and it should be determined whether the person has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. After it is confirmed, doctors are likely to recommend a multi-modal approach during the treatment of type I diabetes. The main aim of the treatment is to relieve the symptoms of hyperglycaemia initially, and on a long term basis, to prevent cardiac, renal, or other complications that are associated with uncontrolled diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Measure #1: Diabetes Education

This stands as the first in the list. The patient has to be aware of what exactly type 1 diabetes is and how it affects the body. Diabetes education is a process which can to be taken up by the health care provider, and it includes details on:

  • Diabetes and how it works
  • The importance of regular care
  • How to control diabetes
  • How to monitor blood glucose levels
  • How insulin therapy works

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Measure #2: Exercise And Lifestyle Modifications

Diabetes can be treated through exercise and lifestyle changes. Studies have shown that blood sugar levels can be considerably lowered through exercise. However, sometimes a drastic drop in the blood sugar levels can cause hypoglycaemia.

Therefore, moderate exercise is often advised (like a brisk walk for thirty minutes a day) instead of heavy workouts for type I diabetics.

type 1 diabetes treatment

Leafy green vegetables are recommended for diets during type 1 diabetes treatment.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Measure #3: Dietary Modifications

Dietary modification plays a vital role in the management of diabetes. This adds on to the treatment, along with insulin therapy, and helps keep the blood sugar levels under check. The main aims of dietary modifications are:

  • To maintain normal blood sugar levels
  • To maintain adequate nutrition
  • To maintain the desirable Body Mass Index (BMI)

The amount of calorie intake has to be around 1800Kcal/day. The prescribed diet should be a balanced one that contains mainly carbohydrates (60-70%), fat (15-20%), proteins (20-25%), and dietary fibre (25gms/1000Kcal).

Diabetics can consume vegetable soups, salads, green leafy vegetables, other green vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, water melons, and fruits like strawberries. They can also include milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, and meat in moderate levels. Items like sweets, aerated drinks, and alcoholic beverages should be avoided.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Measure #4: Insulin Replacement Therapy

As people with type I diabetes face insulin deficiency, doctors often recommend exogenous insulin in order to substitute the lack of the same. There are different types of insulin supplements available. These can be used alone or together, based on the doctor’s advice, as each patient will need a different dose.

Insulin is administered in the form of injections. Insulin syringes and prefilled insulin cartridges can be used with insulin pen devices, and sometimes, a continuous insulin secreting pump is also used to administer insulin.

Being aware of the condition and following the prescribed type 1 diabetes treatment through a proper diet and regular exercise can help you prevent the complications of the disease.

The Two Types of Diabetes – A Brief Look at Each Type

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder that is commonly referred to as diabetes. There are two major types of diabetes, though minor forms do exist in the general population. The major types of this disorder are:

  • Type I diabetes mellitus
  • Type II diabetes mellitus

Types Of Diabetes: Type I

Type I diabetes mellitus is also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). It occurs in people who suffer from insulin deficiency.

Insulin is the hormone that’s responsible for lowering blood glucose levels to an acceptable range, and this hormone is secreted by the pancreas. This condition can result due to absolute or partial loss of beta cells, which are present in the pancreas and secrete insulin.

A family history of early onset diabetes is usually present in people who suffer from type I diabetes mellitus. These patients also develop auto-antibodies, which are antibodies that destroy other protein cells that are essential for bodily functions.

Typically, this form of diabetes occurs before the age of 25 years, often during a patient’s childhood. Individuals who suffer from this type of diabetes are treated through insulin supplements, as oral medication is of lesser use for type I diabetes mellitus patients.

Here’s a simple outline of the causes, symptoms, and treatment options of type I diabetes

Type I Diabetes Causes

  • Family history
  • Development of auto-antibodies

Type I Diabetes Symptoms

  • Excessive urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive hunger

Type I Diabetes Treatment

  • Insulin
  • Dietary modifications
  • Regular exercise
types of diabetes

Insulin injections are essential for people who suffer from both types of diabetes.

Types Of Diabetes: Type II

Type II diabetes mellitus was formerly known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). It occurs in people whose peripheral body tissues do not utilize enough insulin, and also in people with beta cell problems (the cells that secrete insulin).

This type of diabetes is associated with factors like obesity, a sedentary lifestyle that lacks exercise, and old age. An active family history of the condition also contributes to type II diabetes mellitus.

Type II diabetes is a form of adult onset diabetes which generally occurs after the age of 40 years. It can appear at an earlier age, mainly in people who indulge in less physical activity.  Treatment options in this type of diabetes include diet modifications (usually a low calorie diet), an exercise regimen, oral medications, and insulin supplements.

Here’s a simple outline of the causes, symptoms, and treatment options of type II diabetes.

Type II Diabetes Causes

  • Family history
  • Lack of exercise
  • Improper food habits
  • Obesity

Type II Diabetes Symptoms

  • Excessive urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive hunger

Type II Diabetes Treatment

  • Insulin
  • Dietary modifications
  • Regular exercise
  • Oral medications
  • Weight reduction regimen

Apart from the causes specified, diabetes may also result due to certain viral infections and hormonal disorders that might result due to excessive growth hormones. Both types of diabetes are dangerous, as uncontrolled diabetes may lead to complications related to the heart, kidneys, and eyes.

It is essential for every individual to follow a proper diet and get regular exercise to prevent the complications of diabetes mellitus.

Complications Of Diabetes – The Risks You Can Face

The complications of diabetes are many, as it is a complex disease that affects different organs of the body when uncontrolled. Diabetes is caused due to high levels of sugar in the bloodstream, and there are some mild complications that might manifest initially, followed by major ones.

Complications Of Diabetes – The Initial Ones

The primary complications association with the disease are:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive hunger
  • Frequent urination
  • Loss of weight

These problems manifest in all diabetes patients, and lead on to further problems.

Complications Of Diabetes – Long Term Damage

The major problems that arise due to uncontrolled diabetes include:

Cardiovascular Problems

Diabetic individuals face an increased risk of suffering from cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with the blood vessels and the heart.

According to studies, when the blood glucose levels in the body are higher than normal and not controlled with enough insulin, the lining of the body’s arterial walls get affected. This increases the risk of atherosclerosis, the medical term for blocking of arteries.

Fatty substances get deposited in the arteries under this condition, and this increases the blood pressure in the arteries, causing hypertension. These deposits can also cause a heart attack. Diabetes also causes the blood to thicken, and this is one of the prime causes behind heart attacks.

Complications Of Diabetes

Cardiovascular problems feature among the many complications of diabetes

Problems With The Kidneys

Kidney problems are also common among the overall complications of diabetes.

Patients who have elevated glucose levels in their blood over a long period of time face the risk of developing kidney failure or nephropathy. This is a condition in which both the kidneys stop functioning to their maximum capacity. This leads to the accumulation of toxins in the body, which are otherwise normally excreted out through urine.

The earliest clinical evidence of nephropathy is the appearance of low but abnormal levels (>30mg/day) of the protein albumin in the urine.

In addition to its status as the earliest manifestation of nephropathy, the excretion of albumin greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular illnesses.

Problems With The Eyes

A substance called sorbitol accumulates in the retina of all diabetics, due to their blood sugar levels. The retina is the part of the eye which helps us form images of what we see around us.

This accumulated sorbitol causes damage to the retinal cells, interrupting the function of a normal eye and thereby affecting vision. Patients might face problems ranging from blurred vision to the complete loss of vision in rare cases.

Problems With The Brain                     

Diabetes is associated with cerebrovascular diseases that affect the brain or its surrounding structures.

Due to the thickening of lumen in the blood vessels, major blood vessels that run to the brain are blocked in diabetics. This condition might lead to sudden strokes. In bad cases, the affected individual might face the paralysis of one or more limbs or parts of the body.

Other Chronic Infections

Diabetics are more dangerously prone to any infection that affects the general population. This is because the high level of glucose in their blood gradually weakens the immune system, making them more susceptible to common infections.

Common complications of diabetes include yeast infections, foot infections, surgical infections, and urinary tract infections.

The above are the most common health concerns that people with uncontrolled sugar levels should watch out for. It is essential to keep the blood sugar levels under check through the right diet, exercise, and medication.