Before you learn about the diabetes insipidus causes, it is essential to know about the disease and what its symptoms are.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition that brings down the kidneys’ ability to retain water through its natural function. There are two types of this condition, and these have been classified based on the diabetes insipidus causes behind each variant.
The Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water that they body should retain for its proper functioning. This hormone is also called vasopressin. When a deficiency of this hormone causes a change in the water retention cycle, the condition is called Central Diabetes Insipidus.
When the kidneys in the body don’t function properly and fail to respond to the Anti-Diuretic Hormone, the condition is called Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.
Diabetes Insipidus Causes – What Brings About The Condition
Central Diabetes Insipidus Causes
Central diabetes insipidus is caused due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary glands. Such damage is usually brought about by these factors:
- Brain tumors
- Head trauma
- Post surgical complications (of the brain)
- Self-destructing antibodies (auto antibodies) that decrease the size of the glands
- Congenital problems (present from infancy)
- Mutation in the gene that controls ADH function
- Rare diseases like Histiocytosis X or Sarcoidosis
The causes behind hypothalamus or pituitary damage is not known in around 30-50% of people who are diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus.
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Causes
This type of diabetes insipidus results when the kidneys do not function properly. The causes behind this problem could be:
- Medications: Medications like lithium, amphotericin, gentamicin, and loop diuretics can cause diabetes insipidus. Lithium can accumulate in tubule cells and interfere with water/urea channels, impairing the overall urinary concentrating ability.
- Electrolyte Imbalance: An imbalance among electrolytes due to conditions like hypercalcemia and hypokalemia can cause diabetes insipidus.
- Kidney Disease: Conditions like Obstructive Uropathy, Chronic Kidney Disease, and other infections are possible causes. Complications that arise after a kidney transplant can also cause this problem.
- Systemic Processes: Sarcoidosis, Amyloidosis, Multiple Myeloma, Sickle Cell Disease, and Pregnancy can also impair kidney function.
Rarely, the condition may be congenitally present due to a defect in the individual’s genes or receptors. Learning about such diabetes insipidus causes can help in making an informed decision while broaching the subject of treatment.